Biochemistry – Reference Intervals

Units Canine Feline Bovine Equine Porcine Ovine
Sodium mmol/L 144-151 149-156 135-151 135-148 140-150 143-151
Potassium mmol/L 3.9-5.3 3.3-5.2 3.9-5.9 3.0-5.0 4.7-7.1 4.6-7.0
Chloride mmol/L 105-117 112-122 96-110 98-110 100-105 102-116
Calcium mmol/L 2.02-2.91 2.28-2.85 2.11-2.75 2.80-3.44 1.80-2.90 2.30-2.86
Phosphorus mmol/L 0.84-1.83 0.94-1.95 1.08-2.76 1.00-1.80 1.30-3.55 0.82-2.66
Magnesium mmol/L 0.70-1.16 0.74-1.12 0.80-1.32 0.74-1.02 0.78-1.60 0.90-1.26
Urea mmol/L 2.8-9.8 6.4-11.8 3.0-7.5 3.5-7.0 3.0-8.5 2.0-10.0
Creatinine μmol/L 54-122 67-157 40-148 78-143 90-240 69-105
Glucose mmol/L 4.0-6.3 3.2-6.7 1.8-3.8 3.6-5.6 3.6-5.3 1.2-3.6
Cholesterol mmol/L 3.87-8.39 1.80-5.83 2.0-3.4 1.20-4.60
Total
Bilirubin
μmol/L 0-4 0-4 0-30 4-102 0-4 0-5
Direct
Bilirubin
μmol/L 0-4 0-4 0-3 0-7 0-4 0-5
ALP IU/L 18-113 14-49 0- 121 95-233 10-400 66-158
CK IU/L 44-249 58-489 0- 350 0- 500 0- 500 0- 350
AST IU/L 18-55 11-44 46-118 197-429 25-57 48-128
ALT IU/L 13-69 34-90 10-23 34-58
GGT IU/L 0-7 0-6 0-31 0- 25 0- 25 0- 79
Total Protein g/L 56-71 65-84 66-78 60-77 34-60 61-81
Albumin g/L 30-36 25-37 23-43 25-36 18-22 27-39
Globulin g/L 25-38 33-54
A/G Ratio 0.7-1.5 0.50-0.90 0.66-1.30 0.60-1.50 0.60-1.50 0.54-1.22
Amylase IU/L 324-1005 639-1364
Lipase IU/L 78-583 16-139
SDH IU/L 0-10 0-18 4-25 1-15 1-10 5-28
Blood Gases:
pH 7.31-7.42 7.24-7.40 7.35-7.50 7.20-7.55 7.30-7.50 7.32-7.50
pCO2 venous mmHg 34-45 25-35 34-45 38-46 35-45 35-45
pO2 arterial mmHg 80-110 80-110 80-110 80-110 80-110 80-110
HCO3 mmol/L 24±4 24±4 24±4 24±4 24±4 24±4
Base Excess 0±3 0±3 0±3 0±3 0±3 0±3

Biochemistry and Coagulation Reference Intervals

Units Canine Feline Bovine Equine Porcine Ovine
Protein Electrophoresis (agarose gel)
Albumin g/L 24-40 26-44 24-36 29-38 19-24 28-34
Alpha 1 g/L 2-4 6.5-9 7-13 9-12 2-6
Alpha 2 g/L 4-9 6.5-9 7-12 7-13 2-6
Beta g/L 13-17 10-15 6-12 4-12 8-11 3-7
Gamma g/L 4-8 12-27 16-32 9-15 3-7 7-13
Iron μmol/L 14.5-22 14.5-38 14.5-29 14.5-25 14.5-36 29-40
TIBC μmol/L All species 44.8-62.7
Bile Acids (pre)
(post)
μmol/L μmol/L 0- 7
0- 15
0- 7
0- 15
Osmolarity mOsm/kg 285-315 285-315 285-315 285-315 285-315 285-315
Fibrinogen g/L < 6.0 < 5.0
PT Range seconds 6.1-8.0 8.4-14.7 N/A N/A N/A N/A
PTT Range seconds 8.8-14.8 10.8-16.9 N/A N/A N/A N/A

Hematology – Reference Intervals

Units Canine Feline Bovine Equine Porcine Ovine
HgB G/L 135-198 89-156 80-150 110-190 100-160 80-160
Hct L/L 0.40-
0.56
0.28-
0.44
0.24-
0.46
0.32-
0.52
0.32-
0.50
0.24-
0.50
RBC X 1012/L 5.7-8.4 6.4-11.5 5.0-10.0 6.5-12.5 5.0-8.0 8.0-16.0
MCV FL 64-75 35-52 40-60 34-58 50-68 23-48
MCH Pg 22-25 12-17 11-17 11-19 16.6-22.0 9.0-12.0
MCHC G/L 334-357 310-381 300-360 310-370 300-340 310-380
Occasional
Reticulocytes % 0-1 % 0-1.2% 0 – 0.5% 0% 0-1% 0%
X 109/L 0-85 0-85
WBC X 109/L 5.4-14.3 4.7-17.0 4.0-12.0 5.5-12.5 11.0-22.0 4.0-12.0
Segmented X 109/L 2.8-10.1 2.2-9.5 0.6-4.0 2.7-6.7 3.1-10.4 0.7-??
Neutrophils
Bands X 109/L 0.0-0.3 0.0-0.1 0.0-0.12 0.0-0.1 0.0-0.88 Rare
Neutrophils
Eosinophils X 109/L 0.0-1.5 0.0-1.5 0.0-2.4 0.0-0.93 0.06-2.42 0.0-1.0
Basophils X 109/L 0.0-0.1 0.0-0.2 0.0-0.2 0.0-0.17 0.0-0.44 0.0-0.3
Lymphocytes X 109/L 0.9-4.6 0.5-7.5 2.5-7.5 1.5-5.5 4.29-13.6 2.0-9.0
Monocytes X 109/L 0.1-1.4 0.0-0.6 0.03-
0.84
0.0-0.8 0.22-2.2 0.0-0.75
Platelets X 109/L 218-470 306-517 100-800 100-600 310-510 250-750

Endocrine – Reference Intervals

Test Units Canine Feline Bovine Equine
Cortisol
Baseline Post-ACTH
nmol/L nmol/L 14-180
231-571
(2hrs post)
13-110
163-409-1hr
115-507-2hr
10-140 70-180
2-3x Baseline at 8hrs
Post Dexa nmol/L <35 (8hrs Post Dex at 0.01mg/kg IV) <35 (8hrs Post Dex at 0.1mg/kg IV) <30 (19 hrs Post Dex at 0.04 mg/kg IM)
Estrone Sulfate
Pregnant
Non-Pregnant/ True Gelding Stallion/ Cryptorchid
ng/ml ng/ml ng/ml > 20 (> 90 days)

< 5 (> 90 days)

> 10

Progesterone
Diestrus (luteal) ng/ml < 1 5-15 > 3.0 7-20
LH Peak ng/ml 1.0 – 3.5
Estrus (follicular) ng/ml 3.5 – 12.0 < 1.0 < 1.0 < 1.0
Pregnant ng/ml > 12 5-15 > 3.0 7-20
T3 (triiodothyronine) Baseline nmol/L 0.6-2.4 0.3-1.7 0.8-1.9 0.9-3.1
T4 (thyroxine)
Baseline nmol/L 15-52 8-40 13-35
Therapeutic Range 32-58 8-25
Testosterone ng/ml 1.0-7.0 male

<0.4 bitch or neutered male

1.0-6.0
(intact male)
1.0-4.0 Stallion, breeding season
< 1.0 Stallion, non- Breeding Season
< 0.3 Mares,
Geldings
TSH ng/ml < 0.50
Urine Cortisol/ Creatinine Ratio 0.5-17.7 x10e-6 0.5-17.7 x10e-6

Toxicology – Animal Mineral Levels

BOVINE
Values in ppm Wet Weight

ARSENIC
Liver Kidney Heparinized
Blood
Normal 0.004-0.40 0.018-0.40 0.03-0.05
High 1.0-50 1.5-5.0
Toxic – acute 2.0-15 3.5-38 0.17-6.7
– chronic 7.0-100 5.0-53
CADMIUM
Liver Kidney
Normal 0.02-1.0 0.05-1.5
High 1.4-9.0 5.0-36
Toxic – chronic
– acute
50-160
> 50
100-250
> 200
COPPER
Liver Kidney Serum
(No Selenium Supplement)
Serum
(Selenium Supplement)
Deficient 0.5-10.0 1.0-5.0 0.02-1.00 0.10-1.20
Marginal 5.0-25.0 3.0-5.5 0.55-1.20 0.30-1.20
Adequate 25.0-100 4.0-6.0 0.8-1.5 0.32-1.20
High 200-550 5.0-7.0 2.5-4.0 0.50-2.50
Toxic 250-800 10-122 4.0-11.0 0.60-10.0
Liver – Fetal
Deficient 2.0-20
Marginal 20-30
Adequate 30-150
High 200
LEAD
Liver Kidney Heparinized Hair * Bone *
Blood
Normal 0.1-1.0 0.2-2.0 0.01-0.2 0.5-5 1.0-7.0
High 2-10 3-20 0.30-0.40 3.5-90 30-75
Toxic 5-300 5-700 0.35-32 10-100 30-100
* ppm dry weight
SELENIUM
Liver Kidney Serum or Plasma
(No (Se
Supplement) Supplement)
Deficient 0.02-0.17 0.18-0.40 0.002-0.025
Marginal 0.12-0.25 0.40-1.00 0.030-0.060 0.020-0.060
Adequate 0.25-0.50 1.00-1.50 0.080-0.300 0.025-0.150
High 0.75-1.25 2.00-2.50 2.5-3.5 0.800-3.500
Toxic – chronic 1.25-7.00 2.50-5.00 3.5-4.1
– acute 7.00-47.0 1.00-8.00
ZINC
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient <20-40 16-20 0.20-0.40
Marginal 25-40 16-20 0.50-0.60
Adequate 25-100 18-25 0.80-1.40
High 300-500 50-140 2.00-5.00
Toxic 120-500 130-480 3.00-15.0

CANINE
Values in ppm Wet Weight

ARSENIC
Liver Kidney
Normal < 0.2 < 0.2
Toxic > 10.0 > 10.2
CADMIUM
Liver Kidney
Normal 0.037 0.12-0.18
High 1.0-7.0 4.0-17.0
Toxic > 200
COPPER
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient < 20 < 5.0 < 0.20
Normal 30.0-100 5.0-15.0 0.20-0.80
Toxic 400-3000 > 20
LEAD
Liver Kidney Heparinized Hair *
Blood
Normal 0.1-3.5 0.1-2.5 0.01-0.10 0-88
High 3.6-5.0 5.0-10.0 0.30-0.80 0-87
Toxic 50-200 10-50 0.60-7.4 > 88
* ppm dry
weight
ZINC
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient < 15 < 8 0.20-2.00
Adequate 30-70 16-30 0.70-2.00
Toxic 369 295 10.0-32.0

EQUINE
Values in ppm Wet Weight

ARSENIC
Liver Kidney
Normal < 0.4 < 0.4
High 1.0-5.0
Toxic 7.0-15 > 10.0
CADMIUM
Liver Kidney
Normal 0.01-5.0 0.05-10.0
High 15-30 4.2-100
Toxic > 80 75-170
COPPER
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient < 3.5 < 4.0 0.60-0.80
Adequate 4.0-7.5 7.3-9.3 0.85-2.00
High 1000-1500 30-50
LEAD
Liver Kidney Heparinized
Blood
Brain Bone*
Normal 0.08-1.4 0.03-1.30 0.04-0.25 0.5 3.0-4.0
High 3.0-5.0 3.0-5.0 0.30-0.60 1.0-5.0 8.9-40
Toxic – chronic 4.0-50 5.0-140 0.33-140 3.0-30 40-350
– acute 10-500 20-200 0.60-2.5
* ppm dry
weight
SELENIUM
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient 0.14-0.20 0.14-1.10 0.008-0.053
Marginal 0.20-0.30 0.35 0.053-0.120
Adequate 0.30-1.00 0.70-2.00 0.140-0.250
High 0.350-1.000
Toxic – chronic 10.0 1.400-2.000
– acute > 2.5 > 2.0
ZINC
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient < 0.50
Adequate 40-125 20-50 0.60-1.70
High 160-500 65-150 1.60-3.50
Toxic 1300-1900 295-580 1.00-3.50

PORCINE
Values in ppm Wet Weight

ARSENIC
Liver Kidney Heparinized Blood
Normal 0.003-0.20 0.03-0.10 0.01
CADMIUM
Liver Kidney
Normal 0.04-5.0 0.15-0.99
High 3.0-30.0 2.0-50
Toxic > 13 > 270
COPPER
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient 0.30-1.02 2.0-4.0 0.09-0.40
Marginal 4.0-7.0 4.0-7.0 0.40-1.50
Adequate 5.0-25.0 7.0-10.0 1.30-3.00
High 15-200 12.0-25.0 1.70-3.00
Toxic 150-15000 300-1200 4.5-77
SELENIUM
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient 0.03-0.10 0.40-0.77 0.005-0.060
Marginal 0.12-0.25 0.77-1.10 0.060-0.100
Adequate 0.40-1.20 1.50-2.90 0.140-0.300
High 1.50-12.0 3.00-18.0 0.400-0.800
Toxic 3.00-120 3.80-90.0 0.500-2.360
ZINC
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient 9.6-25 0.18-0.25
Marginal 25-35 0.40-0.80
Adequate 40-90 15-30 0.70-1.50
High > 200
Toxic 500-3100 190-367 1.40-2.80

OVINE
Values in ppm Wet Weight

ARSENIC
Liver Kidney Heparinized
Blood
Normal 0.01-0.20 0.01-0.30 0.01-0.08
High 4.0-8.0 1.0-6.0 0.04-0.50
Toxic 10.0-50.0 10.0-40.0 5.0-14.5
CADMIUM
Liver Kidney
Normal 0.02-1.40 0.06-0.48
High 2.0-20.0 4.0-12.0
Toxic 50-600 50-400
COPPER
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient 0.50-4.0 3.0-4.0 0.10-1.00
Marginal 5.0-20 4.0-5.0 0.40-1.00
Adequate 25-100 4.0-5.5 0.70-2.0
High 100-500 4.0-10 1.00-5.00
Toxic 250-1000 18-260 3.3-20
LEAD
Liver Kidney Heparinized
Blood
Brain Bone (Tibia)*
Normal 0.03-0.80 0.10-0.80 0.02-0.25 0.1-0.5 1.0-3.0
High 5-25 5-100 0.70-0.90 1.2-2.0 10-40
Toxic 10-100 5-200 1.0-5.0 > 70
* ppm dry
weight
SELENIUM
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient 0.01-0.10 0.046-0.600 0.006-0.030
Marginal 0.15-0.25 0.70-1.10 0.030-0.060
Adequate 0.25-1.50 0.90-3.00 0.080-0.500
High 2.00-10.0 4.00-6.00
Toxic 15.0-30.0 6.00-15.00 > 3.0
Toxic – injected (IM) 3.6-18.2 3.39-8.70
ZINC
Liver Kidney Serum
Deficient 20-30 15-30 0.22-0.45
Marginal 0.40-0.80
Adequate 30-75 20-40 0.80-1.20
High 100-400 50-1000 4.0-5.0
Toxic > 400 240-1600 30.0-50.0
  1. Tissue mineral levels are quoted from Mineral Levels in Animal Health, Diagnostic Data by Robert Puls, 3rd printing, 1990.
  2. Conversion of units between wet and dry weight: